What are the causes of foundation settlement?
- Direct causes – The weight of the structure placed on top of the foundation is one of its direct causes. Both the live load and the dead load originating from the superstructure are included.
- Indirect causes – The following is a list of the indirect causes of foundation settlement:
- A foundation with poor construction – The settlement of the foundation can also be considerably impacted by the foundation’s design. For instance, foundations with inadequate reinforcements to withstand soil deformations tend to settle more than foundations with adequate reinforcements.
- Weather condition variations – The foundation settlement may also be brought on by the numerous weather-related changes. Typically, strong rains and storms can oversaturate the soil, making it heavy and soft. On the other hand, dry weather, and particularly drought, can cause settlement by causing gaps to emerge in compacted soil.
- Soil consolidation – Uneven settlement in the foundation can also be caused by inappropriate or poor soil compaction.
- Existing soil type and condition – Under the weight of the foundation and the structure, the soil will inevitably compress. Such soil compression causes the water to escape from the soil layers, making the soil denser and more brittle, which causes deformation.
- Vegetation – Foundation settlement may also cause by the presence of trees close to the foundations. This is because, especially during lengthy dry periods, the roots of plants and trees take moisture from the soil. It causes the soil to contract, increasing the likelihood that the foundation may settle.
What are the signs of foundation settlements?
- Noticeable cracks in the walls and foundations.
- Difficulty in opening the windows and doors.
- Sloping or uneven floors, as well as tile cracking.
- The presence of interior building cracks.
- The presence of decayed wood in the piers and beams.
- The expansion joints must be split apart.
What are the precaution steps to take for preventing foundation settlement?
- Before beginning the building, appropriate geotechnical exploration and investigation work must be done.
- The foundation must be properly designed.
- Proper analysis must be done of the groundwater, soil type, and current soil conditions. Non-expansive soils, or soils with very little silt and clay, are the ideal kind of soil for building a foundation.
- Excavating the soil until a quantity equal to the weight of the building is reached.
- Construction in areas with excessive silty soil should be avoided if possible.
- The foundation resting on rigid and hard strata, such as a rock layer.
- The footing’s base needs to be properly designed.
- It is necessary to control the pressure in the subsurface soil.
- As much as possible, eccentric loading must be avoided.
What are the acceptable range for the foundation settlement?
The following are the acceptable limits for foundation settlement: –
Sand or Hard Clay
Sand or Hard Clay
2% of pile diameter
What are the foundation settlement correction techniques?
- Site inspection
The location should be carefully examined, and the following things should be verified: –
- Potential for waterlogging
- Bushes and trees fairly near to the building
- Leaks in water, HVAC, and sewer systems that are underground
- Near the foundation, there may be rat holes, termite or ant burrows, etc
- Conventional methods of solving foundation settlement
A technique to stop the foundations from additional settlement called underpinning. By shifting the load to deeper strata, the process involves strengthening the foundation. Pins set into the deeper soil are clubbed into the foundation. Underpinning frequently takes place in conjunction with shoring.
Grouting is the technique of injecting a liquid into the soil to prevent erosion, increase the soil’s capacity to support loads, and lessen water seepage. Chemical grouting and jet grouting are the two methods available for grouting.
For further explanation on the grouting method, kindly refer to the link at https://structuralrepairs.com.my/is-compact-grouting-a-solution-to-weak-soils/
The innovative technology for soil stabilization and foundation settlement
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- Lifting of structures
Soil injection method
This is the technique of displacement grouting with expanding resins . This method can work well in sand and clay. For sand, lateral compaction increases density and load bearing capacity. For clay, resin blocks drainage path, therefore the water cannot escape and there is no consolidation settlement. Expanding resins combine the effect of compaction grouting and fracture grouting.
What are the advantages of displacement grouting with expanding resins?
Structural Repairs (M) Sdn Bhd have more than 30 years’ experience in solving problem for foundation settlement
Kindly visit to our website at https://structuralrepairs.com.my/ or contact us at Tel: +603-91731728/29 Whatsapp: +60 12-334 9113